# Quantum Bayesian Networks

## November 19, 2019

### NBC Television acquires a ‘Quantum Spy’

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 7:50 am

## November 18, 2019

### Can a quantum computer be used to beat a casino at games of chance?

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 10:28 pm

This question popped into my mind today after seeing an article on games that run on a quantum computer. Currently such games are quite unsophisticated and boring compared with a contemporary video game. But what if the qc is used to play an already existing game, akin to how Deep Blue was used to play chess against Garry Kasparov?

### Quantum Spies for Hire

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 6:49 pm

High paying jobs now open.

We are now hiring industrial spies with expertise in the area of quantum computing. Applicants must have at least a Bachelor’s degree in physics or computer science and be proficient at computer hacking. They must also be willing to relocate to the SF-Bay Area. Alternatively, if the applicant already works for a quantum computing company in the SF-Bay Area, that makes him/her qualified enough to apply for this job.

We have very affluent international clients with interest in acquiring intelligence about the activities, plans, and proprietary technology of certain quantum computing companies. Intelligence acquisition will be in person and via hacking of their intranets. No guns or poisons allowed.

CIA: This post is a joke.

JOB APPLICANT: To contact us, post a for-sale adv in the San Francisco Craig’s list for a Toyota Corolla car of the year 2006. We will reply.

## November 17, 2019

### PsiQuantum has raised $230 million in funding since it was founded 3 years ago Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 12:57 am excerpt: A secretive US start-up founded ­using technology developed at the University of Bristol has raised$230m (£179m) as it seeks to beat Google and IBM in the race to develop a working quantum computer.

PsiQuantum, founded by former Bristol professor Jeremy O’Brien, has secured the funds from investors ­including a venture capital fund started by former Google executive Andy ­Rubin.

## November 16, 2019

### Looking for hidden messages from God, in quantum entanglement :)

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 7:26 pm

You’ve probably heard of lunatics looking in the Bible for hidden apocalyptic messages from God. Or looking for Bible verses hidden in strands of DNA. But have you heard of anyone looking for hidden messages from God, encoded in a graph that represents the quantum entanglement of a density matrix? Well now you have…me. Is there method to my madness? You be the judge.

Carson McCullers, author of the novel “The Heart is a Lonely Hunter” once told a journalist: “Writing, for me, is a search for God”. This sentiment sounds familiar to many artists. Ditto for many scientists like me, who approach scientific research as an artistic endeavor.

My software Entanglish, available at GitHub, allows you to calculate various types of entanglement $Ent(t)$ for any density matrix $\rho(t)$ that depends on a parameter $t$. One can look for phase transitions which produce sharp turns or jumps in the “order parameter” $Ent(t)$ as $t$ goes through special values. Lots of people have already observed phase transitions in entanglement. For example, one such transition has been discovered by the Horodecki family as a density matrix goes from zero to nonzero “bound entanglement”.

So, the question arises, can we represent $\rho(t)$ as an animation with $t$ equal to time, so that we get from that animation some visual indication of when a phase transition occurs. The preferred way to represent a 2 dimensional density matrix is on the Bloch sphere. For density matrices of higher dimensions than 2, there are no representations as popular as the Bloch sphere. One possible representation is to plot what is called in Python a quiver diagram, wherein each entry of the density matrix is represented by a phasor. For example, the density matrix

can be represented by the quiver diagram

This reminds me of quiver diagrams that are used to represent the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition

If passage of $Ent(t)$ through a phase transition produced some kind of visual indication in the quiver diagram of $\rho(t)$ (or some other type of diagram that YOU invented), wouldn’t that be cool? It would be tantamount to receiving a message from God, in a manner of speaking.

## November 14, 2019

### Microsoft is advertising a “quantum inspired” algorithm that cures cancer and probably the gout too

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 7:17 am

I started this Reddit thread. Didn’t get much enlightening feedback on it but so what. Veritas Vincit (Truth Prevails) in the end. Of course, it sometimes takes a few hundred years before that happens☹️😊😛

## November 12, 2019

### Translation from Jupyter notebook to wordpress.com admissible html

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 10:46 pm

This looks like an excellent tool for converting a jupyter notebook into a wordpress.com blog post. I haven’t tried it yet, but I plan to do so in the future. Please give the author a star at its github repo to show him your appreciation.

https://github.com/bennylp/nb2wp

## November 9, 2019

### JEDI contract awarded to the Dark Side of The Force (Microsoft)

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 3:29 am

Check out

https://www.geekwire.com/2019/jedi-explaining-10b-military-cloud-contract-microsoft-just-won-amazon/

A $10B Department of Defense (DoD) contract called JEDI has been awarded to Microsoft. The mission of the contract is to overhaul all the currently existing clouds of the different branches of the military, the entire DoD IT infrastructure, both classified and unclassified, and replace it all with… Microsoft products. Okey Dokey. President Trump, who has been openly critical of Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, allegedly directed his then Defense Secretary and former general James Mattis, to “screw Amazon” out of the contract. So Amazon didn’t get even a tiny sliver of this pie. I think that this contract should be withheld from Microsoft and out-sourced instead to the various university supervised national laboratories or NASA. Awarding it to a single private company, be it Microsoft or Amazon, is folly, and awarding it to Microsoft, is the worse of all possible choices. Why do I say this? Because I despise Microsoft software and lack of ethics. Let me tell you a story. I find Windows 10 the apex of ugliness. Besides, 99.9% of software developers use Unix. So I recently tried to make my Windows 10 computer dual bootable, Windows and Ubuntu. To my chagrin, I found it impossible because MS has built in all these “safety features” to prevent you from installing a dual boot. This is an example of a typical Microsoft tactic: prevent you from using anyone else’s products. Certain MS employees have also treated me very unethically in my quantum computing work. The awarding of JEDI exclusively to MS probably means that all Defense related computers will run Windows 10, Office, Internet Explorer, Bing, Microsoft personal accounts for email and cloud storage, Xbox, Azure, LinkedIn, Skype, GitHub, Q#, etc. or successors thereof, to the partial or total exclusion of every other non-MS software, for the rest of our lives. Like, don’t they control enough software already without giving them control over all the DoD software too? Used to be that our government broke up monopolies. Now it’s in the business of growing them. I foresee that in the future, MS will make it very difficult to run non-MS software on all Defense related computers, including quantum computers. All quantum computers (and classical computers directing them) with the slightest tie to a Defense contract will be obligated to support Microsoft’s Q# software; they may not be obligated to support it exclusively at first, but Microsoft will slowly and insidiously make using anything other than Q# very inconvenient, de facto exclusivity. ## November 8, 2019 ### Microsoft’s new approach to quantum computing is “very close,” an executive says. Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 8:54 pm The title of this blog post is a direct quote from a recent Cnet article. I used the same title and a link to the Cnet article to initiate a thread on Reddit. See below. The executive being quoted is Krysta Svore, who has behaved very unethically towards me in the past. I got some very interesting, technically savvy responses on this Reddit thread that seem to contradict Krysta’s “very close” assessment. ## November 7, 2019 ### The Death Star caves in and makes a visual Q# called Bono (bono means evil in this case, take my word for it :)) Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 6:42 pm Since its inception, Microsoft developers have refused adamantly to provide Q# users with a visual representation of a quantum circuit, even openly bragging about this as a desirable feature of their language. Why forgo something so nice, helpful and competely general? Hard to fathom, maybe they are sadists, or purists, or pedants, or not too bright, … But now there are signs that they have caved in. https://github.com/microsoft/bono Bono is certainly an improvement to Q#, but Q# is still a needlessly forbidding and convoluted language with a much steeper learning curve than the much friendlier and simpler python based Qiskit, PyQuil, Cirq and Qubiter (the best wine for last, as in the Bible). IBM Qiskit draws quantum circuits using python’s matplotlib library. Rigetti Pyquil draws them using the javascript app Quantum Programming Studio. Google Cirq draws them using the javascript app Quirk. Qubiter draws quantum circuits in plain ASCII (super portable and easy to edit), with time pointing downward instead of to the right like everyone else. This choice of time direction is very convenient. It allows Qubiter to produce two files, one file (Picture File) with the ascii drawing, and another file (English file) specifying the circuit in qasm, gate by gate. These 2 files are in 1 to 1 line correspondence and synchronized. ## November 4, 2019 ### The Empire Strikes Back Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 4:56 pm https://cloudblogs.microsoft.com/quantum/2019/11/04/announcing-microsoft-azure-quantum/ In the giant ship wake of Google’s announcement that it has achieved Quantum Supremacy, Microsoft promised today to roll out in the next few months a cloud service called Azure Quantum (typical unoriginal Microsoft name), with access to real qc hardware by IonQ (ion traps), Honeywell (ion traps) and Quantum Circuits (superconducting Josephson Junctions). However, they are mum about when, if ever, they will offer access to the topological qc that they have been trying to build for the last 20 years. Quantum Azure will apparently use mostly Q# (a.k.a. Qrap#) software, guessing from the fact that only Qrap# is mentioned in the press releases. One can only hope that they will allow use of other languages too, such as Pyquil, Cirq, Qiskit, and Qubiter (the best wine for last, like in the Bible), and then gradually dump Qrap#. I reported about this on Reddit ### Entanglish can now calculate Entanglement of Formation Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 5:42 am About 1 month ago (on Sept. 27), I announced the first release of Entanglish, my Python library for calculating quantities related to quantum entanglement. Back then, Entanglish could only calculate squashed entanglement for an arbitrary density matrix. This blog post is to announce that Entanglish can now calculate Entanglement of Formation (a.k.a. Formation Entanglement) for an arbitrary density matrix. Formation Entanglement is especially cool and noteworthy because William K. Wootters, a wonderful physicist and teacher at Williams College, MA, a college named in his honor (just kidding), was able to derive an exact formula for it in the case of an arbitrary density matrix of 2 qubits. William K. Wootters, “Entanglement of Formation of an Arbitrary State of Two Qubits”, https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9709029 The latest version of Entanglish, which I just uploaded to github today, implements Wootters formula in its class TwoQubitState. But that’s not all… You do not get with the new Entanglish release an extra$20 value of tupperware, but you do get something **better**. Entanglish now contains a jupyter notebook that calculates entanglement of formation using our Arimoto-Blahut (AB) inspired algorithm. In the cases where a 2 qubit state is being considered, the notebook also calculates the formation entanglement using Wootters formula. We get decent agreement between AB and Wootters to about 2 or 3 significant places.

Which leads me to a very embarrassing confession. The results of my entanglish software that implements the quantum AB are very sensitive to a cutoff that I use to regulate logs of matrices that are singular. I strongly suspect that there is a nice way to eliminate or greatly reduce this cutoff dependence, but I don’t know yet how to do this. If you can figure it out for me, I will be very grateful. Otherwise, I will figure it out myself, but that may take some time.

Planet Formation, related to formation entanglement poetically and by name only

## October 23, 2019

### Waiting for the qc quantum chemistry revolution is like waiting for Godot

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 7:31 pm

Check out this very well researched and balanced article:

Waiting for the Quantum Simulation Revolution,
October 21, 2019, by Gabriel Popkin
https://physics.aps.org/articles/v12/112

### Google Achieves Quantum Electricity Bill Supremacy

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 6:52 pm

It’s been a torturous journey for Neven in his dreams to achieve quantum supremacy. This blog is ten years old, which is old enough for it to have captured news of when Neven bought his first DWave (in collaboration with NASA, and using Google and NASA money, of course.) Then in Sept 2014, Neven ditched DWave and dangled serious money in front of Martinis if Martinis would build a gate model qc for The Google. And now, 5 years later, Neven and Martinis have achieved what they have long promised, with a Nobel prize gleam in their eyes, Quantum Supremacy. The press and social media (Reddit, Twitter, …) are abuzz with the news. Here is the official Nature paper by Google

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1666-5

But the people at IBM are sore losers (not that the people at Google are any more virtuous), so one day before the Nature journal article was released, IBM started a publicity campaign to belittle Google’s achievement.

In a recent paper that was probably leaked intentionally by Google :), they claimed that their 53 qubit Sycamore chip took 200 seconds to perform a task which would take a supercomputer 20,000/2 years to perform. Now IBM, who built what is currently the most powerful supercomputer in the world, the Summit at Oak Ridge National Lab, claims they can do it in on Summit in two days!!?? 3,650,000/2 times faster than what Google claims. IBM Killjoys.

IMHO, it’s a pretty bogus critique from IBM, because running Summit full throttle for 2.5 days would incur an electricity bill that would be many orders of magnitude bigger than running a qc for 200 secs. So, at the very least, Martinis has achieved quantum electric bill supremacy, which is nothing to scoff at.

## October 19, 2019

### ArXiv paper on squids implementation of single-step multi controlled Not

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 7:42 pm

Check out

“Single-step implementation of high fidelity n-bit Toffoli gate”, by . E. Rasmussen, N. T. Zinner, https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.07548

Milestone work, IMHO, because single-step controlled gates with n controls will be super-useful in quantum AI* and quantum error-correction.

*Why do I say that? Such gates represent a single qubit rotation which is only carried out if n binary questions are made and the answer to those n questions agrees with an answer specified a priori. That is 2^n choices! It would take on the order of 2^n separate steps, each consisting of a single 2 qubit CNOT, to check what this beast of a gate checks in a single step!

Using such multi-control gates, one can program quantum circuits first as dags (directed acyclic graphs, i.e., quantum bayesian networks) and then compile those dags into quantum circuits. Since I first proposed quantum Bayesian networks in 1997 and unveiled my program Quantum Fog (originally in C++ with Mac GUI, now in Python at github), I have spoken about my dream of programming quantum computers this way. This year, I wrote a paper and software showing how to calculate the gradient of one qubit rotations with n-controls and proposing a specific quantum circuit that uses such multi-control gates to do quantum AI and quantum Bayesian networks