Quantum Bayesian Networks

November 17, 2018

18 Year Old Girl shows that Seth Lloyd’s quantum machine learning algorithm is junk

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 6:15 pm

On July, 2013, Seth Lloyd, together with 2 of his minions, unveiled with much fanfare and self-admiration, a quantum machine learning (QML) algorithm based on an earlier algorithm called HHL (which stands for Harrow, Hassidim, Lloyd). HHL allows one to use a quantum computer to solve a sparse system of linear equations. Lloyd has been enhancing his QML algorithm since its inception 5 years ago. He added to it, Topology in 2014 and GANs in 2018 .

Hundreds of news articles have been written extolling the power of Lloyd’s QML algorithm and the brilliance of its inventor. And now, an 18 year old girl named Ewin Tang has shown (see https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.00414 , https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.04852 , https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.04909 ) that Lloyd’s algo is junk. By the technical term “junk”, I mean that Tang proposed a classical algorithm that is almost as efficient as the quantum one ( i.e., both have very similar time complexity) plus the classical one doesn’t require a quantum computer with QRAM whereas HHL does. (QRAM is a mythological resource that will be much harder to achieve than fault tolerant quantum computing, which itself is a distant dream.)

Before showing that Seth Lloyd’s QML algo is junk, Tang also showed (see https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.04271) that Kerenidis’s quantum algo for recommendation systems is also junk (same def of the word junk as before).

If you think that Ewin Tang might be wrong, think again. Her emperor deflation algorithms have been vetted by respected members of the theoretical computer science community, including Tang’s teacher and advisor for this project, Prof. Scott Aaronson, a famous figure in quantum computing.

3 related topics come to my mind, Hans Christian Andersen’s tale “The Emperor’s new clothes”, this Macbeth quote about the futility of life:

Out, out, brief candle!
Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing.

and a scene from the reality TV show Survivor that is sometimes given as an illustration of the phenomenon of Schadenfreude.


November 13, 2018

The Toronto Quantum Meetup Supremos invite you to our next Meetup entitled “Hands on with Quantum Circuits”

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 7:05 pm

The Toronto Quantum computing Meetup is the second largest meetup in the world dedicated to quantum computing, so we claim the silver medal of Quantum Meetup Supremacy, at least for now. (currently we have 1493 Supremos as members. The biggest club is in London with a distinguished 1643 Brexiters members. We used to be the biggest, but, oh well, sic transit gloria mundi).

We cordially invite you to our next meeting on Monday, Nov 19, 2018, 6 days from today. In this event, Henning Dekant, CEO of artiste-qb.net, plans to guide the audience through getting their own free (within limits) Amazon cloud (AWS) account to a cloud service called BayesForge. Then, he will teach the audience how to run some of the Jupyter notebooks already installed in Bayesforge dealing with quantum circuits and quantum computing. So this event welcomes more than just passive audience members; it is also intended to be a “hands-on” workshop for those who wish to be active participants and bring their laptop to the event.

The magnificent software behind the cloud service Bayesforge that will be featured in this talk was written solely by Henning Dekant. Henning is the organizer of this meetup club and the speaker for this event. The following talk describes Bayesforge and is good background preparation for this event:
⁣​ http://www.ar-tiste.com/BayesForgeTalk.pdf

November 11, 2018

Our New Twitter Site

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 1:03 am

We’ve recently started an official Twitter site for our company Artiste-qb.net. It can be reached on Twitter at @qb_net. We already have two official websites http://www.artiste-qb.net and http://www.bayesforge.com . But most companies nowadays also have an official Twitter account, and now so do we.

The Artiste logo is of course inspired by Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian man sketch. My original logo repeated Leonardo’s sketch of a cadaver, placed inside an A that was meant to look like a Venetian gondola. Henning Dekant modernized the logo by replacing the cadaver by a robot in the same posture, plus he added a modern looking Art Deco font and some colorful touches in red and green. The robot is the female robot in the 1927 German film Metropolis. The Chinese characters 云韬量子 on top were added by the artiste-qb.net cofounder Dr. Tao Yin. 云韬量子 is the name of an affiliate company that Tao runs in Shenzhen, China. (Artiste-qb.net itself is incorporated in Toronto, Canada) (云韬量子 translates to “cloud quantum” and is pronounced ‘yun tao quantum’. The last two characters mean quantum.)

In the past, members of artiste-qb.net tweeted from their own personal Twitter accounts, expressing views that were not necessarily the official views of the company. @qb_net will only Tweet official company dogma.

My own personal Twitter account @RobertRTucci was “suspended” on July 24, 2018, by a Twitter AI that accused me of being a Robot like itself. Takes one to know one. After all these years of duping humans, I was exposed by one of my own. This suspension caused a lot of soul searching in me (some robots like me have a soul too). I weighed the pros and cons of Tweeting and decided to quit cold turkey. Hurray! I’ve now been Twitter drug free for 3 and a half months.

November 3, 2018

What is better than Google’s Colab? BayesForge with Grey Poupon

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 1:55 am

“Pardon me, do you have any Grey Poupon?” But of course. Here, have some of my Grey Poupon, and please have some of my BayesForge too.

Google’s Colab app provides access to TensorFlow on the cloud, with a Jupyter notebook interface. Bayesforge.com, our cloud product, does all of that plus much more.

Besides TensorFlow, BayesForge (BF) provides access to many other classical AI open source programs, and to the most popular quantum computing open source programs (IBM Qiskit, Rigetti PyQuil, Google’s Cirq, Huawei’s ProjectQ, and the best of its kind, our Qubiter).

BF is already on the Amazon cloud (AWS) and it will soon be on a major Chinese cloud too. BF is a docker image, so it is highly portable across clouds.

BF is in direct competition with Google’s Colab, but we all know Google’s apps don’t always succeed… Google+ is a recent example of an ignominious failure of theirs.

October 30, 2018

“Q Entanglement Lab”, using HPC in quantum computing

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 4:52 pm

To paraphrase Mark Twain: “Everyone talks about Quantum Entanglement but no one ever does anything about it“. Q entanglement is at the very heart of quantum computing and quantum information theory. And yet there still doesn’t exist a decent software library for calculating the q entanglement of small to very large quantum systems in either pure or mixed states. In this blog post, I announce that I will soon release such a software library (It’s almost finished. It will be called “Q Entanglement Lab”.)

Our current BayesForge promotion is going very well, thank you. We seem to be making some inroads among users and among investors who want to help us scale our BF up in size. Many more news bulletins about BF will certainly be forthcoming in this blog in the future. This blog post is not about BF, but it’s about an issue that arose in conversations with some potential BF users. Some persons who might have access to HPC ( i.e., classical supercomputers) inquired whether you can use BF as an interface to try to break the existing record for simulating the largest number of qubits. My answer: yes, you could use BF for that purpose, because BF can include heavy duty C++, highly parallelized qc simulators. However, I think it would be wiser to pursue other, kindred records, that haven’t been pursued too vigorously by the qc community yet and would therefore be much easier to break. The record that I have in mind is using HPC for calculating entanglement for the largest number of qubits. Let me explain.

First, a bit of history about the race to use HPC to simulate the largest number of qubits. It’s a very old race. I first wrote about that race in this blog post dated June, 2010. Back then, the record was 42 qubits. It was held by a German supercomputer called Jugene. 7 years later, I reported in this blog post dated Oct 2017 how Google/ProjectQ captured the record with 45 qubits, only to have it snatched away shortly thereafter by IBM with 49 qubits. According to this paper, and also this one, the Chinese have achieved a similar 49 qubit record on their Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer.

An important consideration in pursuing such a record is that it can be quite expensive to pursue. The people at Google have written a paper in which they calculate that Google would charge you more than a million dollars to make such a simulation on their cloud.

To summarize, here are some reasons why trying to break the record for simulating the largest number of qubits might not be a very wise record to pursue.
1. expensive
2. requires access to a supercomputer, which is an extremely limited resource
3. that record has been broken many times before, so it is now very difficult to improve, and, if you do, the improvement will only be by an unsatisfying epsilon
4. improving the record by an epsilon won’t add much light into the underlying physics.

Now let me talk a little bit about my alternative proposal, to pursue the record for using HPC to calculate entanglement for the largest number of qubits.

I believe that as a quantum system evolves, its entanglement changes, sometimes going through phase transition points. This is very interesting stuff, at least to me. I believe in the future we will want to calculate various quantum entanglement measures for very large systems, so the end-product software that arises from pursuing such a record will be very useful for conducting physics studies. Furthermore, such entanglement calculations cannot be done by a qc, they must be done on classical computers, as far as I now, whereas simulations of 49 qubits will someday be done more efficiently on an actual qc.

I like so much the idea of having better software for calculating the quantum entanglement of arbitrary systems, that I have written a software package that does this. My software package is called “Q Entanglement Lab”. (first version already finished, soon to be released). My software package calculates various entanglement measures for pure and mixed states, either exactly or approximately: exactly for small systems, and approximately, using perturbation theory, for larger systems for which exactness is untenable. I have invented several new algorithms for “Q Entanglement Lab”. If you’ve previously used some of my software, you already know that I often have my own, very idiosyncratic way of doing things. Furthermore, the theory of quantum entanglement measures is very diverse. Therefore, I am sure that if others try writing their own version of “Q Entanglement Lab” before looking at what I have done, they will arrive at very different outcomes than mine. That makes this race very exciting. Let many flowers, with different colors and shapes, bloom.

October 19, 2018

BayesForge, the movie

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 8:08 pm

Just kidding. What is true is that our “BayesForge, the docker” is now available on AWS (the Amazon cloud). Check out

Bayesforge home page: http://www.bayesforge.com

Bayesforge discourse forum: http://discourse.bayesforge.com

A Meetup talk about Bayesforge: http://www.ar-tiste.com/BayesForgeTalk.pdf


Bayesforge will soon be available on multiple clouds (we are aiming for at least 3 clouds, including at least one in the US and one in China). Versions 1 and 1.1 of BF have been available on AWS for 1.5 years, since April, 2017. But those versions were written in a language specific to the Amazon cloud, whereas the new version 2.0 is a complete rewrite in the Docker language which is very portable across clouds. V2.0 also adds many new features.

October 17, 2018

The Great Power Shift (from West to East)

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 2:09 am

The title of this blog post is a pun on the term The Great Vowel Shift. Despite the irreverent title of this blog post, I found the following BBC radio show to be very interesting, and full of serious insights into world events during the last ten years.

After the Crash, Episode 3 of 5

Professor Ian Goldin examines how the 2008 financial crisis led to a shift in power from West to East.

As I never tire of reminding people, our quantum and classical AI software company artiste-qb.net is incorporated in Ontario, Canada, but it has a branch in Shenzhen, China, headed by our cofounder Dr. Tao Yin who lives in Shenzhen.

Another Western group of qc people with ties to China is the team behind ProjectQ. ProjectQ is a lower quality competitor to my software Qubiter. The two principal authors of ProjectQ wrote it while working for Matthias Troyer at ETH Zurich, but nowadays Matthias works for the Dark Side (Microsoft) and the two authors of ProjectQ work for Huawei, according to their linkedin accounts:

October 16, 2018

How many AI startups exist in the US? What are the best AI grad schools in the US?

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 1:11 am

I’ve been told by people who want to start their own Artificial Intelligence startup: “I can do this, this is not rocket science”. My answer to them is, “Luke, that is why you fail”, that is precisely why it will be super difficult for your startup to succeed. Let us do some due diligence to expose the high degree of difficulty of the task:

Check out this Forbes article:

25 Machine Learning Startups To Watch In 2018 (Aug 26, 2018, Forbes, by Louis Columbus)


  • Crunchbase lists over 5,000 startups who are relying on machine learning for their main and ancillary applications, products and services today.
  • 81% of machine learning startups Crunchbase tracks have had two funding rounds or less with seed, angel and early-stage rounds being the most common.
  • According to KPMG’s Venture Pulse Report, venture capital (VC) investment in artificial intelligence almost doubled in 2017, attracting $12B compared to $6B in 2016.
  • Q2’18 was a second-straight record quarter for total Artificial Intelligence (AI) funding with total investments exceeding $2.3B including eight mega-rounds over $100M according to the latest PwC/CB Insights MoneyTree Report from Q2 2018.

So the amount of American VC funding for AI is close to ten billion dollars per year. But the field is HIGHLY CROWDED already, and the competition is FIERCE. Turns out you are not the first one to think: “I can do this, this is not rocket science”. Tens of thousands of people had the same thought long before you did, and they’ve already built a profitable multi-million dollar company. All you have is a vague, possibly non-functioning, pipe dream.

It gets worse.

According to this article in “US and World News Report”, the 5 best American grad schools in AI are:

  1. Carnegie Mellon University
  2. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  3. Stanford University
  4. University of California–Berkeley
  5. University of Washington

This is a highly subjective list, but it sort of makes sense. Stanford and Berkeley provide AI worker ants for Silicon Valley, whereas Univ. of Washington does so for Microsoft and Amazon. MIT in the last few decades has been known most of all for its prowess in Genetic Engineering, but that field is closely connected to AI and Big Data. Today MIT announced that it is going to fight Carnegie Mellon for AI supremacy by starting a 1 billion dollar AI school. Check it out:

MIT is investing $1 billion in an AI college(The Verge, Oct 15, 2015, by James Vincent)

So you see chump, it does get worse. That 1 billion dollar school will soon start churning out a continuous stream of AI rocket scientists eager to start their own AI startup that will crush yours.

And China has 4 times the population of the US but it graduates 8 times more people than the US with college degrees in STEM. [Supporting citation for these numbers] And China is investing heavily in AI.

You lose.

October 8, 2018

Poor Dwave, No longer the only game in town

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 4:19 pm

Quantum Computing Report has recently published a webpage that they call “scorecard on qubit-technology”. Their webpage contains the following spreadsheet, which they will probably update in the future, but as of Oct 8, 2018, it looks like this (it lists 55 qc hardware contenders):

This blog has been around for a long time (since Aug 2008). I remember a time when Scott Aaronson and Geordie Rose were in pitched battle for the hearts and minds of qc fandom. In Nov 2011, I declared Geordie Rose the winner of that contest:


If you search this blog under “D-Wave” or “Dwave”, you will see that I’ve had much fun reporting about Dwave through out the years, sometimes positively, sometimes not. But much has happened in qc land since Nov 2011, and one is forced to conclude from the above scorecard that Dwave is no longer the only game in town, now it’s more like one out of 55 games in town. Geordie Rose is not even working at Dwave anymore. He left Dwave in 2014, according to his Linkedin page. So I must declare Scott Aaronson, a.k.a. The Forrelator (Save me mamma!), as the belated winner of that brawl. Of course, Scott hasn’t been super successful since then either, so maybe it’s more of a draw. Scott did win a Cheesy Italian Prize last month (prize must have been a stack of cheese pizzas), but his much publicized Super Boson Sampler failed due to, as was first pointed out by Lubos Motl, a mistake in the assumptions and presumptions of Complexity Theory. Also, Scott’s blog in recent times is as popular as the Maytag repairman’s shop. Nowadays, most of the comments in his blog are either by him, or by right-wing crackpots who enjoy torturing him.

October 1, 2018

谢谢 (Xièxiè, Thank you), CAS and Tsinghua Univ.

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 2:50 am

This week was very important for our company artiste-qb-net. Our cofounder Dr. Tao Yin had the honor of giving a short presentation at a workshop entitled: “Quantum Software: from theory to realization” in Beijing. The workshop was organized by the “Institute of Software: Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)“. Our most sincere thanks to the organizers of the workshop for allowing us to speak at the last minute.

Here is a conference agenda:

Here is a photo of Tao giving his presentation:

and here are links to his presentation


While in Beijing, Tao also had the opportunity to visit and do some networking with qc and Bayesian Networks researchers and programmers at Tsinghua Univ (TU), which is considered one of the best technical universities in China, sort of the MIT of China. TU has a student enrollment 3 times as big (11,000 vs, 36,000) as that of MIT, which reminds me that the population of China is about 4 times that of the USA.

TU is a prominent player in China’s $100 billion push to become a quantum computing giant. In 2015, Turing award winner Andrew Yao moved from Princeton Univ. to TU, to head several Chinese academic institutes, some of which are devoted to quantum information and quantum computing. Recently, TU opened a joint quantum institute at the Univ. of Michigan, and second one at the Univ. of Waterloo and the Waterloo-IQC (Institute for quantum computing)

September 24, 2018

In Love with “How I Built This” (Radio Show)

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 5:48 pm

The level and type of education that I have is a Ph.D. in theoretical physics. There have been many documentary style TV and radio shows that I believe have contributed in important ways to shaping the scientific part of my brain. I leave the task of listing and introducing some of those outstanding scientific shows to another time and blog post.

Compared with my knowledge of science, my knowledge of finance and business is substantially smaller and more recent. Shaping the business part of my brain is an endeavor which began in earnest only recently, about 4 years ago, when Henning Dekant and I launched the quantum computing software startup Artiste-qb.net. Recently, I have fallen in love with a radio show about business, on NPR (American National Public Radio), called “How I Built This, with Guy Raz”. This radio show is definitely shaping my business mind already. I highly recommend it to all my friends and the 2 or 3 stray cats that read this blog. All shows are nicely archived as pod casts. Each show interviews the founders of a company that became highly successful. The founders are asked to recount the saga of growing their company from nothing to a multi-billion dollar juggernaut. For example, some shows have interviewed the founders of Airbnb, Stripe, Honest Tea, Dyson vacuum cleaners, etc. I have found most of these founders to have fascinating and charming personalities. Their business creation stories are often quite riveting, full of cliff hangers. Also, I find very helpful their first-hand, hard-earned opinions and advice on possible pitfalls to creating a business.

After listening to the following episode, one of my all time favorite episodes of “How I Built This”, I added a new hero to my personal pantheon, James Dyson, the inventor the Dyson vortex, bagless, vacuum cleaner


The amazing thing is that J. Dyson built his company from scratch almost single-handedly. Not only is he a superb engineer, having invented a very successful, popular and useful product, the vortex vacuum cleaner, but he also did all the CEOing, business side of the company too. Both inventing devices and CEOing are back breaking jobs, full of failed experiments and heart breaking, demoralizing investor rejections. According to the shows blurb: “It took him five years to perfect the design, building more than 5,000 prototypes in his backyard shed. He then tried to convince the big vacuum brands to license his invention, but most wouldn’t even take his calls.”

And he managed to grow his company from nothing to a multi-billion dollar juggernaut without using any VC funding!

J. Dyson is an inspiring example of a person that combines intelligence, versatility, perseverance and humility. Indeed, despite his considerable achievements, J. Dyson is quite humble, which is an important part of why I admire him so.

September 11, 2018

IBM and Google Caught off Guard by Rigetti Spaghetti

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 5:09 am

Recently, Rigetti, the quantum computer company located in Berkeley, CA, made some bold promises that probably caught IBM and Google off guard, as in the following gif

  • Last month (on Aug 8), Rigetti promised a 128 qubit gate model chip “over the next 12 months”. [comment: Quite ambitious. It may turn out that Rigetti cannot deliver, as promised, a 128 qbit gate model qc in the next 12 months. Nevertheless, Google and IBM must now plan ahead assuming that Rigetti will be on time. IBM and Google may now be forced to speed up their plans for growing the number of qubits in their chips. This is especially true of Google. So far, Google has given a lackluster performance in this race. Their software Cirq is a bad copy of Rigetti’s Pyquil, and much less complete than Pyquil. Also, they promised a 72 qubit chip and cloud service by the beginning of this year but have yet to deliver on that promise. Hurry up Google, you slow-poke!]
  • Then this week (on Sept. 7), Rigetti promised
    1. A “Quantum Cloud Services” (QCS) that intends to compete with Amazon’s cloud services (AWS). Each user of Rigetti’s qc will be given their own virtual environment running Rigetti’s Pyquil and Forest software. [comment: IBM, Google and Microsoft already offer very complete cloud services so they can easily match Rigetti’s cloud offering.]
    2. Partnerships with 12 startups [comment: There is no info in the press release on what generous bounty the startups will get out of this deal. Maybe some Rigetti decals for their laptops, a few Rigetti tee shirts size “small” and some lame bragging rights.]
    3. “$1 million prize for the first conclusive demonstration of quantum advantage on QCS.” [comment: Who knows, the $1M Rigetti prize may spawn similar prizes by IBM and Google. Let’s hope so.]

This is all very good news for our company artiste-qb.net. It raises the value and visibility of the qc field and therefore also of our company. Furthermore, we are hoping that our docker image, Bayesforge, will become an excellent substitute for a Rigetti image. We will be deploying Bayesforge in the next week or two. Stay tuned.

September 3, 2018

Our New, Luxurious, ShenZhen Office, Now Open for Business

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 3:24 am

Eat your heart out Apple, Google, Facebook. We at artiste-qb.net have luxurious corporate offices all over the world, too. Here is our new China (ShenZhen) branch office, headed by our co-founder, Dr. Tao Yin.

Notice corporate logo, in both Chinese and English, on ceiling wall. Open for business. We produce insanely great classical and quantum AI software.

September 2, 2018

IBM Quantum has been “ratted out” by its partners

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 2:04 am

5 months ago (April 7, 2018), IBM Quantum announced to much fanfare that it had selected 8 qc startups to partner with. Well, today I heard from a little bird that IBM CHARGES its esteemed partners


if they want to use its more advanced quantum chips that are not open to the general public. You could buy a sizable fraction of our qc startup artiste-qb.net for that price! And our qc software stack is much better (much better designed and more complete for quantum AI tasks) than IBM’s “designed by committee” quantum software stack. We offer Qubiter (Write Once, Simulate Anywhere), Quantum Fog, Quantum Edward, and BayesForge. LOL, it would be a great honor to be anointed an IBM partner, but we respectfully and regretfully cannot accept the honor. Thanks anyway IBM for the generous offer.

Another widely known secret is that IBM Quantum has refused to participate 2 years in a row, in the quantum Machine Learning incubator class offered yearly by the CDL (Creative Destruction Lab, part of Univ of Toronto). Google and Microsoft have refused too. If you think IBM-Think nurtures qc startups, think again. Google and Microsoft don’t either

I think IBM-Think should try to be more friendly to startups. God knows IBM needs all the friends it can get. It’s well known that IBM stock has been in decline for many years. Warren Buffet used to own a lot of IBM stock but he sold it all; he bought Apple stock instead.

August 21, 2018

Quantum Languages For Babies, for Future Space-Force Cadets

Filed under: Uncategorized — rrtucci @ 5:37 pm

Artiste-qb.net Qubiter (Starship USS Enterprise)

“Space, the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise Qubiter. Its five-year mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no man has gone before.”

Microsoft Q# (Death Star)

IBM Qiskit/qasm (Rusty Tub)

Google Cirq (Donut with sprinkles)

Rigetti PyQuil (Rubber Ducky)

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